مقایسه هوش هیجانی، سبک دلبستگی و عزت نفس در افراد معتاد و غیر معتاد

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس روانشناسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف: فرآیندهای تحول مانند هوش هیجانی، سبک دلبستگی و عزت نفس نقش اساسی در سلامت روان­شناختی افراد ایفا می­کنند و یکی از عوامل زمینه­ساز اعتیاد می­باشند. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی هوش هیجانی، سبک دلبستگی و عزت نفس در مردان معتاد و بهنجار بود.
روش: بر اساس ملاک­های ورود، شیوه­ نمونه­گیری در دسترس و مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته بر مبنای DSM IV ، 50 نفر از مردان معتاد انتخاب و پس از همتاسازی با 50 نفر از مردان غیرمعتاد توسط مقیاس رگه فراخلقی (TMMS)، پرسشنامه سبک دلبستگی بزرگسالان (AAS) و سیاهه عزت نفس کوپراسمیت مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند.
 یافته­ها: نتایج نشان­داد که در سبک دلبستگی ایمن میانگین نمرات گروه غیرمعتاد بیشتر از گروه معتاد است، درحالی­که در سبک ناایمن اجتنابی و سبک اضطرابی دوسوگرا مردان معتاد به طور معناداری بالاتر از مردان غیر معتاد هستند. در هر سه مولفه توجه، تمایز و بازسازی خلق از هوش هیجانی، افراد معتاد در مقایسه با گروه غیرمعتاد نمرات پایین­تری کسب نمودند. همچنین در همه مؤلفه­های عزت نفس نیز گروه غیرمعتاد نمرات بالاتری در مقایسه با افراد معتاد کسب نمودند.
نتیجه­گیری: . همبسته­های روانشناختی هوش هیجانی، سبک دلبستگی بزرگسالی و عزت نفس از عوامل مهم خطرساز بروز پدیده اعتیاد به مواد مخدر است و تلویحات کاربردی فراوانی در زمینه مداخلات پیشگیرانه و درمان رفتارهای سوء مصرف دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Emotional Intelligence, Attachment Styles, and Self Esteem in Addicted and Non-Addicted

نویسندگان [English]

  • . . 1
  • . . 2
  • . . 3
چکیده [English]

Objective: The processes of development such as emotional intelligence, attachment style in adult and self esteem play a fundamental role in mental health. They are discussed the factors underlying addiction. The present study aim examined emotional intelligence, attachment style and self esteem in addicted and Normal men.
Method: Based on the entry criteria, available sampling, and structure clinical interview 50 addicted men and 50 non-addicted men selected and then were evaluated by Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AAS) and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.
Results: Results showed that non-addicted group was higher than addicted in the secure attachment style, while addicted were higher than non-addicted in avoidant insecure style and anxity-ambivalanc attachment style significantly. In attention, clarity and mood repair of emotional intelligence, addicted people were lower than others. Also non-addicted are higher than addicted group in self esteem and all of its components.
Conclusion: Psychological correlates of emotional intelligence, attachment style in adult and self esteem are risk factors of addiction phenomena, and they have many applications in the field of preventive and therapeutic interventions of use behaviors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • emotional intelligence
  • Attachment style
  • Self esteem
  • Addiction

 خوانین­زاده، م. ؛ اژه­ای، ج. و مظاهری، م. (1384). مقایسه سبک دلبستگی دانشجویان دارای جهت گیری مذهبی درونی و بیرونی. مجله روانشناسی، 9 (3)،  247- 228.

خوش­طینت، و. (1391). تأثیر التزام عملی به
اعتقادات اسلامی از طریق سبک زندگی سالم بر گرایش دانشجویان به مصرف مواد مخدر. فصلنامه روانشناسی سلامت، 1 (2)، 59-46.

ملازاده، ج. و عاشوری، ا. (1388). بررسی اثربخشی درمان گروهی شناختی-رفتاری در پیشگیری از عود و بهبود سلامت روانی افراد معتاد. فصلنامه دانشور، 16 (34)، 12-1.

 

Ahrens, K.R.; Ciechanowski, P.; & Katon, W. (2012). Associations between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors in an adult female primary care population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 72, 364-370.

Bekendam, C. (2001). Dimensions of emotional intelligence: Attachment, affect regulation, alexithymia and empathy. Dissertation Abstract International, 58, 2109-2110.

Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and Loss. Vol 3, Loss. New York: Basic Books.

Cooper, M.L.; Shaver, P.R.; & Collins, N.L. (1998). Attachment styles emotion regulation and adjustment in adolescence. Journal Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1380-1397.

Coopersmith, S. (1959). A method for determining types of self-esteem. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59,87-94.

Donnelly, J., Young, M., Pearson, R., Penhollov, T. M., & Hernandez, A. (2008). Area-specific self-esteem, values, & adolescent substance use. Journal of Drug Education, 38, 389-403.

Doumas, D.M., Turrisi R., Wright, D.A. (2006) Risk factors for heavy drinking and associated consequences in college freshmen: athletic status and adult attachment. Sport Psychology, 20,419-434.

Feeney, J.A.; &  Noller, P. (1990). Adult style as a predictor of adult romantic relationship. attachment. Journal Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 282-292.

Francis, L.J. (1998). Self-esteem as a function of personality and gender among 8-11 year olds: is Coopersmit’s index fair?. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 159-165.

Fullam, M. (2002). Adult attachment, emotional intelligence, health and immunological responsiveness to stress. Dissertation Abstract International, 63, 1079-1080.

Ghorbani, N., Bing, M. N., Watson, P. J., Davison, H. K., & Mack, D. A. (2002). Self-reported emotional intelligence: Construct similarity and functional dissimilarity of higher-order processing in Iran and United-States. International Journal of Psychology, 37(5), 297-308.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Book.

Greenberg, J.L.; Lewis, S.E.; & Dodd, D.K. (1999). Overalapping Addiction and Self- Esteem among College Men and Women. Adictive Behaviors, 24 (4), 565-571.

Hazan, C.; & Shaver, P. (1987). Conceptualizing romantic love as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.

Herman, M. (2000). Psychotherapy with substance abusers: intergration of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 54, 574-580.

Hundert, J.; & Lantieri, L. (2001). Insecure attachment and alexithymia in young men with mood symptoms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189 (5), 311-316.

Jimenez, T. I., Musitu, G., & Murgui, S. (2008). Family functioning and substance use in adolescents: The mediator role of self-esteem. International Journal of Clinical & Health Psychology, 8, 139-151.

Kassel JD, Wardle M, Roberts JE. (2007).Adult attachment security and college student substance use. Addictive Behavior,32,1164-1176.

Kafetsios, K. (2004). Attachment and emotional intelligence abilities across the life course. Personality and Individual Differences, 37,129-145.

Kounenou, K. (2010). Exploration of the relationship among drug use & alcohol drinking, entertainment activities and self-esteem in Greek University students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 1906-1910.

McCarthy, C.J.; Naomi, P.M.; & Rachel, T.F. (2001). Continued attachment to parents: its relationship regulation and perceived stress in college student. Measure Evaluation Counsistant Development, 33(4), 198-213.

Martins, A.; Ramalho, N.; & Morin, E. (2010). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between Emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 554-564.

Mayer, J.D.; & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence?. In P. Salovey & J.D. Mayer (ed). Emotional development and emotional intelligence, (pp:3-31). New York: Basic Books.

Mcnally, A.M.; Palfai, T.P.; Levine, R.V.; & More, B.M. (2003). Attachment dimensions and drinking-related problems among young adults. Journal of Addictive  Behavior, 28(6), 1115-1127.

Mikolajczak, M., Petrides, K. V., & Hurry, J. (2009). Adolescents choosing self-harm as an emotion regulation strategy: The protective role of trait emotional intelligence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 181-193.

Moore, S.; Laflin, M. T.; & Weis, D. L. (1996). The role of cultural norms in the self-esteem and drug relationship. Adolescence, 31, 23-42.

Oldmeadow, J.A.; Quinn, S.; & Kowert, R. (2013). Attachment style, social skills, and Facebook use amongst adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1142-1149.

Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., & Stough, C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 33 (7), 1091- 1100.

Reis, D.L.; Brackett, M.A.; Shamosh, N.A.; Kiehl, K.A.; Salovey, P.; & Gray, J.R. (2007). Emotional Intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning. NeuroImage, 35, 1385-1391.

Rick, A.D.; & Vanheule, S. (2006). The relationship between perceived parenting, adult attachment style and alexithymia in alcoholic inpatients. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1265-1270.

Salovey, P.; Mayer, J.D.; & Caruso, D. (2002). The positive psychology of emotional intelligence. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (ed). Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp:159-171). Oxford: oxford University Press.

Salovey, P.; Mayer, J.D.; Goleman, S.L.; Turvey, C.; & Palfai, T.P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J.W. pennebaker (ed). Emotion disclosure and health (pp:125-154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Scheier, L. M., Botvin, J. G., Griffin, K. W., & Diaz, T. (2000). Dynamic growth models of self-esteem and adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20, 178-209.

Sinha, R. (2001). How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse?,  Psychopharmacology, 158, 343-359.

Tasca GA, Szadkowski L, Illing V, Trinneer A, Grenon R, Demidenko N, et al. (2009). Adult attachment, depression, and eating disorder symptoms: the mediating role of affect regulation strategies. Personality and Individual Difference,47,662-667.

Thompson, R.; & Waldon, T. (2001). Dimensions of emotional intelligence: Attachment, affect regulation, alexithymia and empathy. Dissertation Abstract International. 58, 2109-2110.

Trinidad, D.R.; & Johnson,  C.A. (2002).  The association between emotional intelligence and early adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 65-105.